Apple belongs to the Malus genus, originating in eastern Turkey, and is a pip fruit, from the Rosaceae family. The main varieties at present are from the Malus domistica group, comprising hundreds of varieties, including a large group of Spur-type that were developed in particular to improve fertility and create a low and compact tree. Leading apple producing countries (tons) are China, USA, France while the leading counties per yield (t/ha) are France, Italy USA and Turkey.
A small to medium-size tree, up to 4 - 6 m high; tree size depends on the rootstock, variety and pruning method. The leaves are dark green and elliptic in shape. The blossoms grow in clusters of 5 blossoms that grow on spurs and branches – white flowers that change their color to pink. The “king” flower opens first, creating the large typical fruit. Normally all the other blossoms are removed.
Most varieties require pollination, which is carried out by bees. In varieties with dwarfed rootstocks, fruit appears after two years, while in normal varieties, fruit appear after 3 - 5 years.